The Political Use of Prophecies in Indonesia

  • Mladen Stajić Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Faculty of Philosophy, University of Belgrade
Keywords:
political prophecies, prophesying, foretelling the future, myth of the Golden Age, anthropology of time, millenniarism, Indonesia, Jayabaya

Abstract

The paper analyzes through different historical periods in Indonesia the political instrumentalization of three prophetic narratives based on the prophecies of the medieval Javanese king Jayabaya, and looks at the ways in which millenniarist organizations and political activists have used the myths of the Savior and the Golden Age to achieve their own goals. The form of prophetic narratives has proved extremely productive in the process of channeling dissatisfaction and mobilizing for the purpose of political activism, and their interpretation does not only yield a clearer picture of the complex political situation and historical events, but also, through the actions of influential individuals, it provides insight into a number of other aspects of local culture, such as the forming of religious syncretism, the division of power in society or the cultural perception of time. The paper seeks to show that these prophecies do not aim to foretell future events, but rather serve as a means of ensuring the legitimacy of individuals in political struggles in the present time.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Aberle, David. 1966. The Peyote Religion Among the Navaho. Chicago: Aldine Pub. Co.

Bošković, Aleksandar. 2002. “Anthropological Perspectives on Myth”. Anuário Antropológico 99: 103-144.

Bošković, Aleksandar. 2006. Mit, politika, ideologija: Ogledi iz komparativne antropologije. Beograd:Institut društvenih nauka.

Brown, Colin. 2003. A Short History of Indonesia: The Unlikely Nation? Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin.

Bubandt, Nils. 2014. Democracy, Corruption and the Politics of Spirits in Contemporary Indonesia. New York: Routledge.

Carey, Peter. 1974. The Cultural Ecology of Early Nineteenth Century Java: Pangeran Dipanagara, a Case Study. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asia.

Carey, Peter. 1976. “The Origins of the Java War (1825-30)”. The English Historical Review 91 (358): 52-78. https://doi.org/10.1093/ehr/XCI.CCCLVIII.52

Castoriadis, Cornelius. 1998. The Imaginary Institution of Society. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Cœdès, George. 1968. The Indianized States of South-East Asia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Cribb, Robert. 2004. “Serekat Islam”. In Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, edited by Keat Gin Ooi, 180-181. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.

Cribb, Robert and Audrey Kahin. 2004. Historical Dictionary of Indonesia. Lanham: Scarecrow Press.

Čolović, Ivan. 2000. Politika simbola. Beograd: Čigoja štampa.

Daglas, Meri. 2001. Čisto i opasno. Beograd: Čigoja štampa.

Dahm, Bernhard. 1969. Sukarno and the struggle for Indonesian independence. London: Cornell University Press.

Darkley, Steven. 2005. The History of Indonesia. London: Greenwood Press.

Darmaputera, Eka. 1988. Pancasila and the Search for Identity and Modernity in Indonesian Society: A Cultural and Ethical Analysis. Leiden: Brill.

De Haulleville, Olivia. 2000. Pilgrimage to Java. San Hose: iUniverse.

Dimmitt, Cornelia. 1990. „Yuga“. U Enciklopedija živih religija, uredio Kit Krim, 794-796. Beograd: Nolit.

Edelstein, Dan. 2004. „Restoring the Golden Age: mythology in revolutionary ideologies and culture“ Phd Thesis. University of Pennsylvania.

Elson, Robert. 2008. The Idea of Indonesia: A History. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Florida, Nancy. 1995. Babad Jaka Tingkir. London: Duke University Press.

Florida, Nancy. 1997. “Writing Traditions in Colonial Java: The Question of Islam“. In Cultures of Scholarship, edited by Sarah Humphreys, 187-217. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Friend, Theodore. 2003. Indonesian Destinies. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Friend, Theodore. 2014. The Blue-Eyed Enemy: Japan Against the West in Java and Luzon, 1942-1945. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Geertz, Clifford. 1976. The Religion of Java. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Geertz, Clifford 2010. Lokalno zanje. Zagreb: AGM.

Geertz, Clifford. 1973. The Interpretation of Culture. New York: Basic Books.

Gell, Alfred. 2001. The anthropology of Time: Cultural Constructions of Temporal Maps and Images. Oxford: Berg.

Gordana Gorunović. 2011. „Gercov interpretativni pristup religiji: komparativno proučavanje islama u Indoneziji i Maroku“. U Antropologija religije i alternativne religije, uredio Danijel Sinani, 171-215. Beograd: Srpski genealoški centar.

Goto, Ken'ichi. 2003. Tensions of Empire: Japan and Southeast Asia in the Colonial and Postcolonial World. Singapore: NUS Press.

Guha, Ramachandra 2014. Makers of Modern Asia. London: Harvard University Press.

Gunn, Geoffrey C. 1979. „Ideology and the Concept of Government in the Indonesian New Order“. Asian Survey 19 (8): 751-769. https://doi.org/10.2307/2643719

Hale, Christopher. 2013. Massacre in Malaya: Exposing Britain's My Lai. Cheltenham: The History Press.

Headley, Stephen. 2006. “Being a 'martyr' (syahîd) in Java today: A deformation of sacrifice?”. Izlaganje na konferenciji Martyr(e) et suicide dans l’islam contemporain. Paris: MSH-CADIS-CNRS. https://secular.hypotheses.org/files/2013/07/Being-a-martyr-in-Java.pdf

Heidhues, Mary Somers. 2000. Southeast Asia: A Concise History. London: Thames and Hudson.

Hoskin, Janet. 1987. “The Headhunter as Hero: Local Traditions and Their Reinterpretation in National History”. American Ethnologist 14 (4): 605-622. https://doi.org/10.1525/ae.1987.14.4.02a00010

Houbent, Vincent. 2009. “The Future of the Past, the Past of the Future: History in Southeast Asia”. In Responding to the West: Essays on Colonial Domination and Asian Agency, edited by Hans Hagerdal, 17-28. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.

Jay, Robert. 1971. “The Javanese State and Islam“. In Man in Adaptation: The Cultural Present, edited by Yehudi Cohen, 506-517. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.

Johns, Anthony. 1961. “Muslim Mystics and Historical Writing”. In Historians of South East Asia, edited by Daniel Hall, 37-49. London: Oxford University Press.

Kahin, George. 1952. Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.

Kartodirdjo, Sartono. 1976. “Social Movements of Java in the XIX and XX Centuries: an Analytical Framework. The Tjiomas Rebellion of 1886: a Case Study.” Cahiers Internationaux d'Histoire Économique et Sociale 8: 62-83.

Kartodirdjo, Sartono. 1978. Protest Movements in Rural Java: A Study of Agrarian Unrest in the Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries. Оxford: Oxford University Press.

Kartodirdjo, Sartono. 1988. Modern Indonesia, tradition & transformation: a socio-historical perspective. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

Kartodirdjo, Sartono. 2007. “Agrarian Radicalism in Java: Its Setting and Development”. In Culture and Politics in Indonesia, edited by Claire Holt, 71-125. Ithaca: Equinox Publishing.

Knapp, Stephen. 2011. The Vedic Prophecies: A New Look into the Future: The Eastern Answers to the Mysteries of Life. Scotts Valley: CreateSpace Independent Publishing Platform.

Labrousse, Pierre. 1993. “The Second Life of Bung Karno Analysis of the Myth (1978-1981)”. Indonesia no. 57, 175-196. https://doi.org/10.2307/3351247

Lanternari, Vittorio. 1974. “Nativistic and Socio-Religious Movements: A Reconsideration”. Comparative Studies in Society and History 16 (4): 483-503. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0010417500007568

Leach, Edmund. 1961. Rethinking Anthropology. London: Athlone Press.

Lee, Khoon Choy. 1999. A Fragile Nation: The Indonesian Crisis. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co.

Levenda, Peter. 2011. Tantric Temples: Eros and Magic in Java. Lake Worth: Ibis Press.

Linton, Ralf and Irving Hallowell. 1943. “Nativistic Movements”. American Anthropologist 45 (2): 230-240. https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1943.45.2.02a00070

Melayu, Hasnul Arifin. 2000. Islam and Politics in the Thought of Tjokroaminoto (1882.-1934.). Ann Arbor: Institute of Islamic Studies McGill University.

Milošević, Katarina i Miša Stojadinović. 2012. “Understanding the Contemporary Political Myth Through the Prism of National Identity”. Facta universitatis 11 (1): 77-87.

Moertono, Soemarsaid. 2009. State and Statecraft in Old Java: A Study of the Later Mataram Period, 16th to 19th Century. Singapore: Equinox Publishing.

Nedeljković, Saša. 2006. Mit, religija i nacionalni identitet: Mitologizacija u Srbiji u periodu nacionalne krize. Etnoantropološki problemi 1 (1): 155-179. https://doi.org/10.21301/eap.v1i1.7

Nefosnews. 2014. “Ramalan ’Notonegoro’ Jayabaya, Jokowi Tak Masuk Hitungan”. Objavljeno 11.12.2014. http://www.nefosnews.com/post/berita-analisa/ramalan-notonegoro-jayabaya-jokowi-tak-masuk-hitungan http://habitanomaly.blogspot.rs/2014/12/ramalan-notonegoro-jayabaya-jokowi-tak.html

Parry, Richard Lloyd. 2007. In the Time of Madness: Indonesia on the Edge of Chaos. New York: Grove Press.

Quinn, George. 2009. “National Legitimacy through a Regional Prism: Local Pilgrimage and Indonisia’s Javanese Presidents”. In The Politics of the Periphery in Indonesia: Social and Geographical Perspectives, edited by Minako Sakai, Greg Banks and John Walker, 173-199. Singapore: NUS Press

Ramstedt, Martin. 2005. Hinduism in Modern Indonesia. London: Routledge.

Reid, Anthony. 1974. The Indonesian national revolution, 1945–1950. Hawthorn: Longman.

Reuter, Thomas. 2004. “Java's Hinduism Revivial”. Hinduism Today Web Edition. December 2004.
http://www.hinduismtoday.com/modules/smartsection/item.php?itemid=1308

Reuter, Thomas. 2005. “Great Expectations: Hindu Revival Movements in Java, Indonesia”. Swaveda. May 2005. http://www.hindunet.org/hvk/articles/1205/36.html

Reuter, Thomas. 2008. “Reading the Future in indonesia: Javanese Texts of Prophesy as a Popular Genre”. Izlaganje na konferenciji 17th Biennial Conference: Is this the Asian Century?. Melbourne: Asian Studies Association of Australia.

Reuter, Thomas. 2010. “Spiritual Imagination and Societal Change in Indonesia: The Prophesies of King Jayabaya”. In Online Proceedings of the Symposium Anthropology and the Ends of Worlds, edited by Sebastian Job and Linda Connor, 34-44. Sydney: Department of Anthropology. University of Sydney.

Ricklefs, Merle Calvin. 2001. A History of Modern Indonesia Since c. 1200. Houndmils: Palgrave.

Smith, Anthony. 2013. “The Golden Age and National Renewal”. In Myths and Nationhood, edited by George Schopflin and Geoffrey Hosking, 36-59. New York: Routledge.

Soetan, Soetopo. 2001. “Indonesian Nationalism and the Japanese Occupation during World War II.” The Journal of Sophia Asian Studies no. 19, 109-121.

Stange, Paul. 2004. “Kebatinan Movements”. In Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, edited by Keat Gin Ooi, 719. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.

Sundhaussen, Ulf. 1982. The Road to Power: Indonesian Military Politics, 1945-1967. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Suwandi, Raharjo. 2000. A Quest for Justice: The Millenary Aspirations of a Contemporary Javanese Wali. Leiden: KITLV Press.

Tarling, Nicholas. 2001. Southeast Asia: A Modern History. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Teik, Goh Cheng. 1972. “Why Indonesia's Attempt at Democracy in the Mid-1950s Failed”. Modern Asian Studies 6 (2): 225-244. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0026749X00015377

Kratonwedding. n.d. “The Bestowal of New Title: Princess Hayu and Prince Notonegoro”. Pristupljeno 28.9.2015. http://kratonwedding.com/the-bestowal-of-new-title-princess-hayu-and-prince-notonegoro/

Touwen-Bouwsma, Elly 1996. “The Indonesian Nationalists and the Japanese ‘Liberation’ of Indonesia: Visions and Reactions”. Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 27 (1): 1-18. https://doi.org/10.1017/S002246340001064X

Touwen-Bouwsma, Elly. 2004. “Diponegoro (Pangeran Diponegara) (CA. 1785-1855)”. In Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor. edited by Keat Gin Ooi, 423-424. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO.

Van De Ryt, Ami. 2001. “Japanese Occupation of Indonesia”. Perspectives in History no. 17, 56-68.

Van der Kroef, Justus M. 1959. “Javanese Messianic Expectations: Their Origin and Cultural Context”. Comparative Studies in Society and History 1 (4): 299-323. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0010417500000347

Van der Kroef, Justus M. 1968. “Sukarno, the Ideologue”. Pacific Affairs 41 (2): 245-261. https://doi.org/10.2307/2754798

Van der Kroef, Justus M. 1973. “Sukarno's Indonesia”. Pacific Affairs 46 (2): 269-288. https://doi.org/10.2307/2756173

Vickers, Adrian. 2013. A History of Modern Indonesia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Vuković, Branislav. 1961. Indonezija: Društveno – politički razvitak i radnički pokret. Beograd: Rad.

Wallace, Anthony. 1956. “Revitalization movements”. American Anthropologist 58 (2): 264-281. https://doi.org/10.1525/aa.1956.58.2.02a00040

Warma, Pavan. 2012. Becoming Indian: The Unfinished Revolution of Culture and Identity. New Delhi: Penguin Books India.

Weber, Max. 2009. Theory of Social and Economic Organization. New York: Simon and Schuster.

Westerling, Raymond. 2013. Challenge to Terror. Redditch: Read Books Limited.

Wiyono, Gani. 1999. “Ratu Adil: A Javanese Face of Jesus?”. Journal of Asian Mission 1(1): 65-79.

Yewangoe, Andreas Anangguru. 1987. Theologia Crucis in Asia: Asian Christian Views on Suffering in the Face of Overwhelming Poverty and Multifaceted Religiosity in Asia. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Žirarde, Raul. 2000. Politički mitovi. Beograd: Čigoja štampa.

Zorić, Snježana. 1986. “Fenomenologija javanskog misticizma”. Kulture Istoka: Časopis za filozofiju, književnost i umetnost istoka br. 9, 19-21.
Published
2020-04-19
How to Cite
Stajić, Mladen. 2020. “The Political Use of Prophecies in Indonesia”. Issues in Ethnology and Anthropology 15 (1), 269–311. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.21301/eap.v15i1.10.