Instructions to Authors - Citation Style

Instructions to Authors

 

Manuscripts for Issues in Ethnology and Anthropology should be submitted by registration on the web site https://www.eap-iea.org  or should be sent by e-mail to the Editors' e-addresses: editor@eap-iea.org   and  coeditor@eap-iea.org.

For more information authors could contact us on following e-mails: eap@f.bg.ac.rs or info@eap-iea.org.

By submitting manuscripts authors must strictly follow the Instructions to Authors and Citation style, failing which the manuscripts would be rejected.

 

Preparation of manuscripts

  1. When submitting their texts, the authors must state their name and surname, institutional affiliation, city, country and e-mail address.

If the text is co-authored, above data should be included for each of the authors, and full name and e-mail of the corresponding author should be typed at the bottom.

  1. Abstract, not exceeding 250 words, should contain a short review of the content, the method and the most important results of work, so that its original text can be used in referential periodicals and databases. Do not include citations and abbreviations in the abstract.

Keywords, max. 5 to 7 words, are listed in a separate line at the end of the abstract. Keywords should be relevant to the topic and content of the paper. An accurate list of keywords will ensure correct indexing of the paper in referential periodicals and databases.

  1. Text files should not be specifically formatted; the authors are encouraged to use the default formatting provided by their computers. Manuscripts are sent in A4 paper size, Word document (.doc or .docx) with normal font Times New Roman 12, and line spacing 1,5. Footnotes should be typed with font Times New Roman 10, line spacing 1.
  2. Paragraphs should be indented 0.5, and not separated by an empty line.
  3. Manuscript can be structured by chapters and subchapters. Titles are capitalized headline-style unless they are in a language other than English.
  4. Quotation marks are used for citations inside the text, and apostrophes for a citation within a citation. Quotations longer than two lines should be separated by empty lines in a separate block.
  5. Photographs, tables, schemas and illustrations should be submitted along with the paper in their default format, as separate files. Mark the position of figures and tables in the text. A list of illustrations, captions which accompany them and the full names of their authors are to be supplied separately.

Photos, drawings and other illustrations should be of good quality. Additional graphics are to be submitted as follows: drawings in the format of Line art, with a resolution of 600 dpi, and photos with a resolution of 300 dpi. If the author chooses to incorporate graphics into their word document, the same graphics must also be submitted separately as .tif, .pdf. or .jpg files. The Editorial Board reserves the right to determine page makeup and layout of texts and illustrations with regard to the journal’s format.

  1. References to the number of the project and its financiers (if the text is written as a part of a research project), acknowledgment notes, and similar commentaries, should be stated by the Title, with a non-numerical footnote with the star sign *.
  2. References to the congress/conference, if the manuscript was previously communicated, or if it is derivative of previously edited text, should be given with full adequate reference in the footnote 1.
  3. Language of the manuscript: The journal accepts manuscripts in English and French. Authors writing in Serbian/Croatian/Bosnian are free to submit their texts in whichever alphabet they choose (Cyrillic or Roman), and the texts will be printed in the alphabet they were submitted in, except for the references which must be written in Roman script!

In case the author has need of scripts/alphabets which utilize specific glyphs, the fonts which were used must also be supplied.

  1. Categories of articles and maximum length of manuscripts by number of characters with spaces: scientific paper, up to 75 000 characters; review paper, up to 45 000 characters; scientific critiques, up to 20 000 characters; reviews, up to 10 000 characters, chronicles, up to 6 000 characters. The Editorial Board reserves the right to amend these categories in particular cases.

References in text and in the reference list should be in Latin script, and if the original references are written in Cyrillic script, it is recommended to use the ISO 09 standard for transliteration. For help in transliteration, one can consult following web site: http://translit.cc/.

Citation style in the reference list and in-text

Authors are obliged to cite literature by exclusively using 17th edition of Chicago Manual of Style, requiring the Author-Date variant. For more details and more examples one can consult online edition of  The Chicago Manual of Style https://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide/citation-guide-2.html.

 

  1. BASIC STRUCTURE OF A REFERENCE LIST ENTRY
  • A reference list is given at the end of the paper, and it is listed alphabetically with regard to authors’ family or last name.
  • Author’s name is inverted (last name first). The year of publication is the second element, following the author’s name.
  • The elements are separated by periods.
  • Authors should not use the 3-em dash for repeated names in their manuscripts.
  • English-language titles of works are capitalized headline-style in source citations as in running text.
  • A colon is used to separate the main title from the subtitle (even if no colon appears in the source itself). A space follows the colon.
  • Italics and quotation marks: In source citations as in running text, italics are used for the titles of books and journals. Italics are also used for the titles of newspapers and blogs, movies and video games, paintings, and other types of works. Quotation marks are generally reserved for the titles of subsections of larger works—including chapter and article titles. For some types of works—for example, a book series or a website—neither italics nor quotation marks are used.
  • Noun forms such as editor, translator, volume, and edition are abbreviated, but verb forms such as edited by and translated by are spelled out.
  • DOI and URL: A DOI (Digital Object Identifier) is a unique and permanent string assigned to a piece of intellectual property such as a journal article or book, in any medium in which it is published. Authors are obliged to put DOI with journal articles, if there is one. In their source citations, authors should append this DOI to https://doi.org/ followed by the prefix and suffix at the end of the reference.

In the absence of a DOI, for sources consulted online, authors should put URL (uniform resource locator) which is designed to lead a reader directly to an internet source. Note that it is never sufficient to provide only a URL; as far as they can be determined, the full facts of publication should always be recorded first.  As with any URL, they should be tested to make sure they lead where intended.

An access date—that is, the self-reported date on which an author consulted a source—is of limited value. Chicago does not therefore require access dates in its published citations of electronic sources unless no date of publication or revision can be determined from the source.

  • Each entry in the reference list must correspond to a work cited in the text.

 

 

  1. BASIC STRUCTURE OF AN IN-TEXT CITATION

 

  • Citations are in text body. A citation in the text usually appears in parentheses and includes only the first two elements in a reference list—the author and the year of publication with no intervening punctuation. No comas should be used between the author’s name and the publishing year. If page number is given, it should be separated by a coma.

 

(D’Andrade 1995) or (D’Andrade 1995, 37) or (D’Andrade 1995, 37-40)

 

  • In a parenthetical reference to two or more works, a semicolon usually separates each work from the next. Alphabetical or chronological order may be appropriate.

 

(Jarvie 1964; Stocking 1966; Risjord 2000, 2007)

 

  • If there are several references by the same author in the same year, they are marked with letters (a, b, c, etc.). Additional works by the same author(s) are cited by date only, separated by commas except where page numbers are required then use a semicolon.

 

(Kovačević 2009, 2011) or (Kovačević 2007, 76; 2012, 102-103)

 

  • If the same source is cited several times consecutively in the text, the reference is cited after each citation. Abbreviation, such as Ibid is not acceptable.

 

  • Where two or more works by different authors with the same last name are listed in a reference list, the text citation must include an initial.

 

(J. Smith 1996) … (R. Smith 2003)

 

  • Terms such as editor or translator, abbreviated in a reference list, are omitted from a text citation.

 

  • Text citations in relation to surrounding text and punctuation

 

  • Author-date citations are usually placed just before a mark of punctuation.

At the same time women working in scientific institutions suffer from the duality of being both ‘invisible’ and ‘extra-visible’ and like all minorities, they are less confident of their abilities, less willing to take risks, less able to negotiate for their needs, and they experience performance pressures, and marginality at their units (Bagilhole 2007; Gibson 2006; Tomić 2010).

  • Where the author’s name appears in the text, it need not be repeated in the parenthetical citation. Note that the date should immediately follow the author’s name, even if the name is used in the possessive.

 

Fiorina et al. (2005) and Fischer and Hout (2006) reach more or less the same conclusions.

 

There are at least three works that satisfy the criteria outlined in Smith’s (1999) study.

 

  • Although a source citation normally follows a direct quotation, it may precede the quotation—especially if such a placement allows the date to appear with the author’s name.

 

Sima Ćirković argued that “Serbian historiography has now been torn out of its international context, with a consequent interruption of dialogue and a return to autarkic national historiography of the beginning of the century, resulting in a weakening of its position in dialogue with the national cultural environment” (Ćirković 1994, 36).

 

Or    Sima Ćirković (1994, 36) argued that “Serbian historiography has now been torn out….”

 

  • When the source of a block quotation is given in parentheses at the end of the quotation, the opening parenthesis appears after the final punctuation mark of the quoted material. No period either precedes or follows the closing parenthesis.

 

… Just as language needs both meaning and sound, so culture needs both ideas and physical manifestations. It would be odd if linguists decided to define language as just meanings and to treat the sounds of speech as something else entirely. (D’Andrade 2001, 9)

 

  1. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION
  • Page numbers and other locators: In text citations, where reference is usually to a particular passage in a book or journal, only the page numbers pertaining to that passage are given. In reference lists, no page numbers are given for books; for easier location of journal articles or chapters or other sections of a book, the beginning and ending page numbers of the entire article or chapter are given. When a volume as a whole is referred to, without a page number, is used.

 

  • Footnotes at the bottom of the page should include less important details, additional explanations, remarks on used sources such as research data, web pages, etc. Citing an author in a footnote is done in the same manner as in the text body. Endnotes are not acceptable.

 

  • Reprint editions and modern editions—more than one date: When citing a reprint or modern edition in the author-date system, it is sometimes desirable to include the original date of publication. Whether or not any information about the original publication is included, the original date is listed first, in parentheses. The parentheses are rendered as square brackets in the in-text citation.

Austen, Jane. (1813) 2003. Pride and Prejudice. London: T. Egerton. Reprint, New York: Penguin Classics. Citations refer to the Penguin edition.

                (T) (Austen [1813] 2003)

  • “Quoted in” in author-date references: To cite a source from a secondary source (“quoted in . . .”) is generally to be discouraged, since authors are expected to have examined the works they cite. If an original source is unavailable, however, mention the original author and date in the text, and cite the secondary source in the reference list entry.

Costello, Bonnie. 1981. Marianne Moore: Imaginary Possessions. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

(T) In Louis Zukofsky’s “Sincerity and Objectification,” from the February 1931 issue of Poetry magazine (quoted in Costello 1981) . . .

  • “Forthcoming” in author-date references: Forthcoming can stand in place of the date in author-date references. It should be reserved for books under contract with a publisher and already titled but for which the date of publication is not yet known. In text citations, forthcoming is preceded by a comma.

 

  • Parentheses and square brackets: Chicago prefer square brackets as parentheses within parentheses, usually for bibliographic purposes.

 

  • Most common abbreviations

 

Editor / Editors

ed. / eds.

Compiler

comp.

Translator

trans.

Volume

vol.

Issue

is.

Number

no.

Chapter

chap.

Appendix

app.

No date

n.d.

No place

n.p.

and Others

et al.

Article

art.

Contrast

cf.

Compare

see /cp.

For example

e.g.

Against

vs.

 

Author-Date references—examples and variations

The following examples illustrate citations using the author-date system. Each example of a reference list entry is accompanied by an example of a corresponding parenthetical citation in the text (T).

 

BOOKS

 

Author Last Name, First Name. Year. Book Title. Place: Publisher.

 

One author

 

D’Andrade, Roy. 1995. The Development of Cognitive Anthropology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

(T) (D’Andrade 1995) or (D’Andrade 1995, 37)

 

  • When citing several publications by the same author, the order of references in the list is chronological in ascending order. If there are several references by the same author in the same year, they are marked with letters (a, b, c, etc.). Authors should not use the 3-em dash for repeated names in their manuscripts.

 

Two authors

 

  • For a book with two authors, only the first-listed name is inverted in the reference list.

 

Strauss, Claudia and Naomi Quinn. 1997. A Cognitive Theory of Cultural Meaning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

(T) (Strauss and Quinn 1997, 121-136)

Three authors

 

Last name Name, Name Last name, and Name Last name.

 

Kovačević, Ivan, Bojan Žikić i Ivan Đorđević. 2008. Strah i kultura. Beograd: Srpski genealoški centar – Odelјenje za etnologiju i antropologiju Filozofskog fakulteta, Etnološka biblioteka 38.

(T) (Kovačević, Žikić and Đorđević 2008)

 

 

 

 

Four or more authors 

 

For a book with four or more authors, include all the authors in the reference list entry. Word order and punctuation are the same as for two or three authors. In the text, however, cite only the last name of the first-listed author, followed by et al.

 

Settles, Isis, H., Lilia Cortina, Nicole Therese Buchanan, and Kathi Miner. 2012. “Derogation, Discrimination, and (Dis)Satisfaction with Jobs in Science: A Gendered Analysis.” Psychology of Women Quarterly 37 (2): 179–191. https://doi.org/10.1177/036168431246872.

 

(T) (Settles et al. 212)

Organization as author in author-date references

If a publication issued by an organization, association, or corporation carries no personal author’s name on the title page, the organization may be listed as author in the reference list, even if it is also given as publisher. To facilitate shorter parenthetical text citations, the organization may be listed under an abbreviation, in which case the entry must be alphabetized under that abbreviation (rather than the spelled-out name) in the reference list.

IOM (International Organization for Migration). 2019. World Migration Report 2018. Geneva: IOM.

(T) (IOM 2019)

Editor or compiler in place of author

Last Name, First Name, ed. Year. Book Title. Place: Publisher.

For works listed by editor(s) or compiler(s) or translator(s) in a reference list, abbreviations such as ed. or eds., comp. or comps., or trans. following the name are omitted in text citations.

Bronner, Simon J., ed. 2005. Manly Traditions. The Folk Roots of American Masculinities. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

(T) (Bronner 2005)

Chapter or other part of a book or a collection of papers

Last Name, First Name. Year. "Chapter/Essay Title." In Book Title, edited by Editor First Name Last Name, Inclusive Pages of Chapter/Essay. Place: Publisher.

In citations of a chapter or similar part of an edited book or collection of papers, include the chapter author; the chapter title in quotation marks; and the editor. Precede the title of the book with In.

Fine, Gary Alan. 2005. „In the Company of Men: Female Accomodation and the Folk Culture of Male Groups.“ In Manly Traditions. The Folk Roots of American Masculinities, edited by Simon J. Bronner, 61-76. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

(T) (Fine 2005)

Introduction, preface, foreword or similar parts of the book

Bronner, Simon J. 2005. Introduction to Manly Traditions. The Folk Roots of American Masculinities, ed. Simon J. Bronner, xi-xxv. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

(T) (Bronner 2005, xiii-xx)

E- Book

If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, list a URL. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number. Include the name of database, medium or format of the source (ProQuest, EBSCO, Kindle, CD-ROM etc).

Milenković, Miloš. 2007. Istorija postmoderne antropologije. Posle postmodernizma. Beograd: Srpsko genealoško društvo i Odeljenje za etnologiju i antropologiju Filozofskog fakulteta. http://www.anthroserbia.org/Content/PDF/Publications/3_MilosMilenkovic_PoslePostmodernizma.pdf. Available in printed form.

(T) (Milenković 2007)

Fine, Gary Alan.  1996. Kitchens: The Culture of Restaurant Work. Berkeley – Los Angeles – London: University of California Press. Kindle.

(T) (Fine 1996)

 

JOURNAL ARTICLE

What is new in the 17th edition of Chicago Manual of Style is using a colon when journal doesn’t have a volume number but only an issue number.

  • Volume and issue number: Citations of journals include the volume and issue number and date of publication. Volume typically refers to the number of years the publication has been circulated, and issue refers to how many times that periodical has been published during that year. The volume number follows the italicized journal title in roman and with no intervening punctuation. The page range for an article is included in the reference list, preceded by a colon. Authors should record the full information for the issue, including issue number, even if a journal is paginated consecutively across a volume or if the month or season appears with the year. Include DOI, if there is one, in the form of https://doi.org/ specific number, regardless of printed or electronic source. In the case of electronic version of the article, if no DOI is available, list a URL.

 

Last name, Name. Year. “Title of the article”. Journal Title volume (issue): pages. https://doi.org/...

Neal, Jennifer Watling and Zachary Neal. 2013. “Nested or Networked? Future Directions for Ecological Systems Theory.” Social Development 22 (4): 722–737. https://doi.org/10.1111/sode.12018.

 

(T) (Neal and Neal 2013)

 

  • If there is a month or season, authors should include them, but it’s not mandatory.

Last name, Name. Year. “Title of the article”. Journal Title volume, no. issue, (Season or Month): pages. https://doi.org/... or URL

Fine, Gary Alan and Barry O’Neill. 2010. „Policy Legends and Folklists: Traditional Beliefs in the Public Sphere“. Journal of American Folklore 123, no. 488 (Spring): 150-178. https://www.jstor.org/stable/10.5406/jamerfolk.123.488.0150

 

(T) (Fine and O’Neill 2010)

 

  • Only volume number: Sometimes, however, there is no issue number, or it may be intentionally omitted. When there is no issue number, and where no month or season is recorded, the page number reference follows the volume number, separated by a colon and with no intervening space. If the month or season is included, it is enclosed in parentheses, and a space follows the colon.

Last Name, Name. Year. “Title of article”. Journal Title volume:pages. https://doi.org/...

Gunderson, Alex R., and Manuel Leal. 2015. “Patterns of Thermal Constraint on Ectotherm Activity.” American Naturalist 185:653–64. https://doi.org/10.1086/680849.

But

Gunderson, Alex R., and Manuel Leal. 2015. “Patterns of Thermal Constraint on Ectotherm Activity.” American Naturalist 185 (May): 653–64. https://doi.org/10.1086/680849

  • Only issue number: When only an issue number is used, it is set off by commas and not enclosed in parentheses.

Last name, Name. Year. “Title of the article”. Journal Title, no. issue, pages.

Meyerovitch, Eva. 1959. “The Gnostic Manuscripts of Upper Egypt.” Diogenes, no. 25, 84–117.

(T) (Meyerovitch 1959)

 

ARTICLE IN A NEWSPAPER OR POPULAR MAGAZINE (PRINT OR ONLINE)

Newspaper and magazine articles may be cited in running text, and they are commonly omitted from a reference list. If a reference list entry is needed, repeat the year of publication with the month and day to avoid any confusion. Page numbers are not included because articles can appear on different pages in different editions. If you consulted the article online, include a URL.

Last Name, First Name. Year. "Article Title." Newspaper Title, Month Day, Year.

Manjoo, Farhad. 2017. “Snap Makes a Bet on the Cultural Supremacy of the Camera.” New York Times, March 8, 2017. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/08/technology/snap-makes-a-bet-on-the-cultural-supremacy-of-the-camera.html.

Mead, Rebecca. 2017. “The Prophet of Dystopia.” New Yorker, April 17, 2017.

  • If a newspaper article is unsigned, the title of the newspaper stands in place of the author.

New York Times. 2002. “In Texas, Ad Heats Up Race for Governor.” July 30, 2002.

 

(T) (New York Times 2002)

 

BOOK REVIEW

Velimirović, Danijela. 2013. „Priče iz ugla ekonomske antropologije“. Review of the book by Ildiko Erdei Čekajući Ikeu. Potrošačka kultura u postsocijalizmu i pre njega. Etnoantropološki problemi 8 (2): 597-599.

(T) (Velimirović 2013, 597-598)

THESIS OR DISSERTATION

Banić Grubišić, Ana. 2014.Socijalne antiutopije u anglosaksonskoj filmskoj produkciji od sredine XX veka.” PhD diss., Faculty of Philosophy in Belgrade.

(T) (Banić Grubišić 2014, 189)

WEB SITE

A citation to website content can often be limited to a mention in the text (“As of July 19, 2011, the British Museum listed on its website . . .”). If a more formal citation is desired, it may be styled as in the examples below. In the absence of a date of publication or date of last modification, use the access date or abbreviation n.d. (no date).

Last Name, First Name. Last Modified/Accessed Year. "Page Title." Website Title. Last modified Month Day, Year. URL.

CivicPlus Content Management System. n.d. City of Ithaca, New York (website). Accessed April 6, 2016. http://www.cityofithaca.org/.

(T) (CivicPlus, n.d.)

Google. 2016. “Privacy Policy.” Privacy & Terms. Last modified March 25, 2016. http://www.google.com/policies/privacy/.

(T) (Google 2016)

 

BLOG ENTRY OR COMMENT

Blog entries or comments should be cited in running text, and they are commonly omitted from a reference list. If a reference list entry is needed, repeat the year of publication with the month and day to avoid any confusion. Add the access date before the URL. Cite the blog post there but mention comments in the text only. If the blog has the word "blog" as part of its name, "(blog)" should not be included in the citation. If the blog is a part of a larger publication, include that title, too.

Last Name, First Name. Year. "Post Title." Blog Title (blog), Month Day, Year. URL.

Germano, William. 2017. “Futurist Shock.” Lingua Franca (blog), Chronicle of Higher Education. February 15, 2017. http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/linguafranca/2017/02/15/futurist-shock/.

(T) (Germano 2017)

 

CITING SOCIAL MEDIA CONTENT

Citations of social media content can often be limited to the text. A frequently cited account or an extensive thread related to a single subject or post, however, may be included in a reference list. In the reference list, include the real name and a screen name, if both are available. In the text, cite the name under which the entry is listed (usually the real name unless only a screen name is available). Repeat the year with the month and day in the reference list to avoid any confusion.

Chicago Manual of Style. 2015. “Is the world ready for singular they? We thought so back in 1993.” Facebook, April 17, 2015.

O’Brien, Conan (@ConanOBrien). 2015. “In honor of Earth Day, I’m recycling my tweets.” Twitter, April 22, 2015, 11:10 a.m. https://twitter.com/ConanOBrien/status/590940792967016448.

Souza, Pete (@petesouza). 2016. “President Obama bids farewell to President Xi of China at the conclusion of the Nuclear Security Summit.” Instagram photo, April 1, 2016. https://www.instagram.com/p/BDrmfXTtNCt/.

 

 

 

E-MAIL OR OTHER MESSAGES AND PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS

E-mail, Facebook and other text messages may be cited in running text, and they are omitted from reference list. One should state the name of the message’s author, the type of message and its date. In parenthetical citations, the term personal communication (or pers. comm.) can be used.

(John Doe, Facebook direct message to author, May 5, 2017)

(John Doe, e-mail message to author, February 29, 2008).

(John Doe, pers. comm.)

 

CITING MUSIC, FILM, TV, ONLINE VIDEO

Music recording

Composer, Performer, or Conductor Last Name, First Name. Original Recording Year. Album Title. Record Label Catalog Number, Reissue Year, Medium.

The Beatles. 1969. Abbey Road. Parlophone CDP 7 46446 2, 1987, compact disc.

Film

Film Title. Original Release Year. Directed by Director First Name Last Name. Place: Studio/Distributor, Release Year of Medium Used. Medium.

Thelma & Louise. 1991. Directed by Ridley Scott. Santa Monica, CA: MGM Home Entertainment, 2004. DVD.

Television

TV Show Title. Original Broadcast Year. Episode no. Number, first broadcast Month Day by Network. Directed by Director First Name Last Name and written by Writer First Name Last Name.

NCIS. 2011. Season 9, Episode 14, "Life Before His Eyes", January 10, 2012, CBS. Directed by Tony Wharmby, and written by Gary Glasberg.

Online Video

The format of citations depends on the information available. Generally, include details about the original published source (if applicable) and details related to the digitized copy such as source type, length, and where it is posted.

Video Creator Last Name, First Name. Original Release Year. Video Title. Original Production Company. From Provider of Online Video. Source Type, Running Time. URL.

Jobs, Steve. 2005. "Steve Jobs' 2005 Stanford Commencement Address." YouTube video, 15:04. Posted by Stanford, March 7, 2008. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UF8uR6Z6KLc.

 

MANUSCRIPT/ARCHIVAL MATERIAL

Manuscript materials are cited in the text using the name of the manuscript collection, not the individual item. The reference list gives information about the manuscript collection only, not the individual items. If only one item from a collection is cited, the details of that item can be included in the reference list and the author used in the in-text citation.

Hopkins Family Papers. Williams College Special Collections. Williamstown, MA.

(T) (Hopkins Family Papers)

 

HOW DO I DEAL WITH ___? Missing citation elements

  1. Author

If no personal author is listed, determine whether an organization is responsible for the content. If so, use that organization's name as the author in the reference list and in-text citation. If the author is unknown, start the reference list entry with the title. For the in-text citation, use the title, which can be shortened as long as the first word matches the reference list entry.

  1. Date

For web pages with no last modified date, use the date you accessed it. For printed works for which the date cannot be determine, use n.d. (no date).

  1. Place

Use n.p. (no place) if it is unknown.

  1. Publisher

 If unknown, just use place and date.